Thomas Arnold said, “He who does not know God the Holy Spirit cannot know God at all.” The person and work of the Holy Spirit in the life of Christians is very significant. W. A. Criswell beautifully captures the great work of the Holy Spirit in the life of a believer. He says, “Without the presence of the Spirit there is no conviction, no regeneration, no sanctification, no cleansing, no acceptable works….Life is in the quickening Spirit.”. One of the ministries of the Holy Spirit concerning the Christian is the “Baptism of the Holy Spirit”. However, this important ministry of the Holy Spirit has become a matter of controversy and debate since the later part of the 19th century. Several views are put forth regarding the meaning, reality and purpose of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various views in light of biblical evidences and arrive at a biblical understanding of the phrase,“Baptism of the Holy Spirit.”
2. THE BAPTISM OF THE HOLY SPIRIT – VARIOUS VIEWS
2.1 The Evangelical View
The Evangelical view is well expressed in the words of Merrill F. Unger. He says, “The Baptism of the Holy Spirit is that divine operation of God’s Spirit which places the believer in Christ, in His mystical body, the church, and makes him one with all other believers in Christ.”. According to this view, the ‘baptism of the Holy Spirit’ happens at the moment of conversion though it is distinct from new birth. John Stott writes, “… it is one of the distinctive blessings of the new covenant, and, because it is an initial blessing, is also a universal blessing for members of the covenant.” Therefore, ‘baptism of the Holy Spirit’ is for all who believe in Christ. It is not an experience to seek after but a positional blessing. Although there are mild variations about the explanation of the phrase “baptism of the Holy Spirit” and its evidence, most evangelicals hold to the view above stated. The very often quoted verse by evangelicals to explain this belief is I Cor 12:12-13. Denominations like Anglicans, Baptists, Brethren etc., hold to this view. However, even among evangelicals there are a few who believe in the baptism of the Holy Spirit as a subsequent event to salvation. F. B. Meyer, Andrew Murray, R. A. Torrey were some of such prominent evangelicals of the past.
2.2 The Roman Catholic View
Although the paper is not going to discuss at length the views held by the Roman Catholics regarding the ‘baptism of the Holy Spirit’, it is worth just mentioning. They identify ‘baptism of the Holy Spirit’ same as the water baptism. The moment a person gets baptized in water the Holy Spirit descends on him or her. However, some Catholics believe that the Holy Spirit is not given to infants at water baptism but during confirmation which usually occurs years after water baptism.
2.3 The Pentecostal View
The term ‘Pentecostal’ refers to any denomination or groups (such as Assemblies of God, Church of God) that traces its historical origin back to the Pentecostal revival of 1901 in United States. Pentecostals believe that the baptism of the Holy Spirit is distinct and an empowering experience subsequent to salvation. William W. Menzies writes, “All believers are entitled to and should ardently expect and earnestly seek the promise of the father, the baptism in the Holy ghost and fire, according to the command of our Lord Jesus Christ……with this come such experiences as an overflowing fullness of the Spirit, a deepened reverence for God, an intensified consecration to God and dedication to His work.” The initial evidence and confirmation of this experience is the gift of Tongues. The official statement of the North American Pentecostals states, “We believe……. baptism in the Holy spirit with the evidence of speaking in other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance.” The biblical evidence for their stand is mainly drawn from the gospels and the book of Acts (Acts 2, 8, 10, 19).
2.4 The Charismatic and Third Wave Views
Charismatic, refers to any groups that trace their origin to the charismatic renewals of the 1960s and 1970s. They are sometimes called as Neo-Pentecostals. Since they have penetrated all major denominations, its theology has been shaped by various churches. This makes it difficult to speak of a representative charismatic. Therefore, there are differing views about the baptism of the Holy Spirit among them. Some regard the Spirit-Baptism as a subsequent event to salvation but others do not. Sometimes a distinction is made between being baptized ‘by’ the Spirit (happens at rebirth) and baptism ‘with’ the Spirit (later event). There is also no agreement with regard to the initial evidence of tongues. The emphasis of Charismatics with regard to the ‘Baptism of the Holy Spirit’ is that such an experience empowers or endues with power for ministry. The Third Wave (as named by Peter Wagner) movement which arose in 1980s emphasizes the use of all New Testament spiritual gifts in the church today and manifestation of signs in gospel presentations. They consider that conversion and ‘Baptism of the Holy Spirit’ are simultaneous experiences. They call the subsequent experiences as ’empowering’ and do not make the gift of tongues as an indispensable initial evidence. They differ from the evangelicals in the sense that the third wave group have a high expectation of miraculous signs and wonders.
3. THE LANGUAGE OF ‘BAPTISM’ IN THE BIBLE
The English word ‘baptism’ is derived from the Greek word baptisma. The verb form is baptizo. The verb form of the word is pre-Christian, meaning ‘to immerse’ ( to be overwhelmed by or to perish), but the noun form of the word is entirely Christian in its use. Judaism in the OT used baptizo as a word signifying ‘cleansing’ (2 Kings 5:14) and later incorporated this connotation and used ‘baptism’ as a rite of initiation. For converts to Judaism, proselyte baptism was a significant part of initiation. Michael Green notes, “They washed themselves in a bath of water, and saw this as washing away their gentile impurities…..Moreover, this baptism enabled them to enter symbolically into the event that was crucial in Israel’s salvation history – the exodus.”
John’s baptism in the gospels added to the purification meaning of proselyte baptism an ethical significance. His fervent exhortation to repent (Matt 3:7-8) shows that ‘baptism’ now had a personal commitment aspect, rather than being a mere religious ceremony. Nevertheless, this was just preparatory to a greater reality. John knew it and proclaimed it – that Jesus will baptize with Spirit and fire in the future. When came Jesus, he called his death as ‘baptism’ (Lk 12:50) and this connected water baptism with salvation events. Jesus, therefore, added a new meaning to John’s baptism – his own work on the cross.
Clarence B. Bass states,“To the act of water baptism Jesus added the promise of the baptism of the Spirit, the means by which the redemptive work is applied to humans (Matt 3:11, Mk 1:8, Lk 3:16).” Baptism may, therefore, be regarded from two perspectives. Subjectively, the baptism by the Holy Spirit brings the believer into positive relationship with God. Symbolically, water baptism affirms this relationship. This idea is seen when Peter narrates the happenings of Cornelius household to his companions in Jerusalem – “can anyone forbid water for baptizing these people who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?” (Acts 11:16). Paul too used batisma and baptizo in the sense that it meant nothing but the Christian’s union with Christ (Col 2:12, Rom 6:3, I Cor 6:11). One fact is evident – ‘baptism’ in the biblical language always has the idea of initiation.
4. WHAT DOES THE NEW TESTAMENT TEACH ABOUT SPIRIT-BAPTISM?
4.1 The Gospels
Although we see the work of the Holy Spirit in the OT, the ministry of the baptism of the Holy Spirit was unknown. There are only seven passages, all in the NT, which talk about being ‘baptized in the Spirit’. The first four are from the gospels -Matt 3:11, Mark 1:8, Lk 3:16, John 1:33. They are utterances made by John the Baptist. Wayne Grudem remarks,”It is hard to draw any conclusion from these passages with respect to what baptism with the Holy Spirit really is. We only come to know that Jesus is the one who will baptize and no other specification about baptism.”
4.2 The Acts of the Apostles
The next two references are from the book of Acts – Acts 1:5 and Acts 11:6. Both of these verses refer to the event of Pentecost. The first one is said by Jesus Christ – “For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.” The second by Peter, recalling the words of Jesus – “Then I remembered what the Lord had said: ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.” These two verses link the baptism of the Holy Spirit with the event of the Pentecost (Acts 2).
4.3 The Epistles – I Cor 12:13
The only other reference in the NT is by Paul in I Cor 12:13 – “For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one body-whether Jews or Greeks, slave or free-and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.” Does this reference point to the same baptism mentioned in the previous six verses? Pentecostals and some Charismatics believe that this reference is different from the other six references. Their official dictionary states, “Pentecostals generally do not identify this baptism as ‘in’ or ‘with’ the Spirit. They consider it as ‘by’ the Spirit.” They try to point out that in other six references Jesus is the baptizer and the element is the Spirit whereas here the Spirit is seen as the Baptizer. Therefore, they claim that the other six verses (in Gospels and Acts) talk about ‘baptism in the Spirit’ which is subsequent to salvation and this one in I Cor 12:13 talks of ‘baptism by the Spirit’ which happens at the moment of salvation. However, a close look at the root words give us clarity. Wayne Grudem Points out this, “Although the distinction seems to make sense from some English translations, it really cannot be supported by an examination of the Gk text, for there the expression is almost identical to the expressions we have seen in other six verses.” The word ‘by’ has been used only to avoid the awkward English translation of the Gk text. Moreover, no baptizer is mentioned in Acts 1:5 and 11:6 but we supply Jesus Christ as the baptizer. Stott asks, “Why not we do the same in I Cor 12:13?” The identity of the baptizer fades away when the verse is in passive form. Therefore, It is appropriate to say that the baptizer in I Cor 12:13 is Jesus Christ. This verse has major implications. If I Cor 12:13 verse is understood in the same sense as the other six verses (‘in’ and not ‘by’), then, baptism of the Holy Spirit refers to the invisible and instant act of getting united in the body of Christ (the Church) which was inaugurated by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost.
5. BAPTISM OF THE HOLY SPIRIT – AT CONVERSION OR LATER?
There are several passages and events in the scripture which gives the impression that baptism of the Holy Spirit is a subsequent experience after conversion. Pentecostals and some Charismatics show them as clear evidence for their belief in subsequence. However, Evangelicals and ‘Third wave’ outrightly reject such an understanding of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. We will discuss some of those passages.
5.1 The Jordon Anointing (Lk 3:21-22)
The experience of Jesus at Jordan (Lk 3:21-22) is considered as an evidence for the ‘Baptism of the Holy Spirit’ subsequent to conversion. The argument goes like this – Jesus right from his birth had the Holy Spirit with him (Lk 1:35, 2:40, 2:49). Therefore, the Jordan anointing must be considered as the second experience of the spirit. Pentecostals claim, if Jesus himself needed a second experience which empowered him, how much more we are in need of it? James Dunn in his classical work, Baptism in the Holy Spirit, points out the weakness of such an interpretation. He writes, “Jordan experience may be a powerful anointing, but is primarily, even essentially, initiatory. It initiated the End-time and initiated Jesus into it.” It was the introduction of the Messianic era and it happened as the direct fulfillment of OT prophesies about Christ. Merill Unger writes, “That our Lord was anointed by the Holy Spirit and divinely filled without measure is true. But to confuse this anointing with the Baptism in the Spirit displays misunderstanding of the nature of Spirit Baptism….. The reasons that this was not Spirit baptism – first, Jesus Himself said that it will happen after his death as a result of his finished work. Second, as son of God and son of man, He was already one with His Father (Jn 10:30), and needed no spiritual baptism.” Jesus’ Jordan experience (Lk 4:14-44) gives us a glimpse of the Holy Spirit’s work in the new covenant which was then to be inaugurated during Pentecost and it should not confused with Spirit baptism or second experience. Although Evangelicals differ among them with regard to the meaning of the anointment, they reject the idea of this event being called as ‘Spirit-baptism’.
5.2 The Pentecost Event (Acts 2:1-4)
Pentecostals and Charismatics show Acts 2 narrative as a clear indication of subsequence. Pentecostal Dictionary states,“The disciples received the baptism of the Holy spirit on Pentecost subsequent to their conversion and regeneration. It empowered them for ministry. This is the norm for the entire church.” Another Pentecostal writes, “The emphasis of Acts 1:8 is power for service, not regeneration, not sanctification. So, we conclude that one may be regenerated, may be a saint, and yet not enjoy the baptism in the Spirit and its anointing for service.” Evangelicals agree with the Pentecostals that this event empowered the disciples for witness and ministry. However, they reject the idea of this event being a pattern for the church.
It should be noted that Pentecost was a historical event, the inauguration of a new chapter in the salvation history. Dunn writes,“Pentecost is a watershed in salvation-history, the beginning of the new age and new covenant, not for Jesus this time, but now for his disciples.” We must realize that Pentecost was more than an individual event in the lives of disciples. Pentecost marked the coming of the Holy Spirit to reside on this earth and the inauguration of the Church. Pentecost was the point of transition between the old covenant work of the Holy Spirit and the new covenant work. Although Pentecost was a second experience in the lives of disciples, long after conversion, it should not be made a pattern for the entire church age. We live in the age of the new covenant of the Spirit. Therefore, we need not seek the ‘baptism of the Holy Spirit’. Today, when we come to Christ, we are baptized into the Church, which came into existence on the day of Pentecost.
5.3 Samaritan and Ephesian Experiences (Acts 8:12-17, 19:1-6)
Pentecostals and some Charismatics claim that the Samaritan believers after their conversion had to wait for the Apostles to lay hands in order to receive the Spirit and this pattern applies even to this day. A casual reading of the passage, Acts 8:12-17 seem to endorse this view. There is surely a time gap between Samaritan conversion and their ‘Baptism in the Spirit.' It creates an impression that Pentecost continues. Evangelicals say that this not the case. Let us look into the back ground. Philip who was scattered because of persecution, reached Samaria and preached the gospel. People believed in the gospel and received water baptism. This news reaches the Apostles who were in Jerusalem (Acts 8:14-15) and they were surprised by the turn of events. Therefore, they sent Peter and John to investigate. The coming of the apostles was important in the divine plan to assure authority and unity in the Church, because there always existed a bitter division among the Jews and Samaritans. Therefore, in the presence of the Apostles the Spirit came upon them with outward manifestations to confirm to the Apostles that the Samaritans too have become part of God’s fold (church) established on the day of Pentecost. The coming of the Spirit was sovereignly delayed to unite Samaritans with Jews in one body and to make it evident that the Samaritans were not second class citizens in God’s kingdom.
The Ephesian outpouring is an important passage for the Pentecostals. William Atkinson presents the Pentecostal view, “The Ephesians were Christians before meeting Paul, Paul’s question,”Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” implies that someone could be a Christian without the Spirit. A time also elapsed between the Ephesians’ receiving baptism and their receiving the Spirit.” However, Dunn representing Evangelicals argues that Luke does not present these people as Christians. Green also points it, “They were mere followers of John the Baptist and not Christian disciples who had made heir way hundreds of miles north west to Ephesus. They had clearly not been in touch with John’s later testimony to Jesus, for they needed to be informed by Paul that the coming one who whom John predicted was in fact Jesus. They had neither heard of Jesus, nor believed in Jesus, nor been baptized in Jesus, and therefore never informed about the Holy Spirit.”. It is to be noted they received the Holy Spirit along with their conversion. Moreover, Grudem says that these believers cannot be a pattern for us because we don’t wait for a Messiah. We come to an understanding of Christ immediately and receive the Holy Spirit then and there.
5.4 Paul’s Conversion and Cornelius Household (Acts 9:17-18, 10:44-45)
Pentecostals say that Paul received the baptism of the Holy Spirit through Ananias after three days of his conversion. Dunn and Green representing the Evangelicals point out that Luke does not portray a second blessing but a three day conversion. Paul’s experience of being filled with the Holy Spirit is an integral part of his conversion. With regard to the conversion of Cornelius and his household some Pentecostals argue that Cornelius was a convert before Peter’s visit. Others say he was born again during the sermon, to argue that his Spirit-baptism was succeeding and distinct from conversion.
Evangelicals in turn use the same passage to prove that baptism of the Spirit happens at the time of conversion. Grudem writes,“Certainly Cornelius had not first believed in Christ’s death and resurrection to save him and then later come into a second experience after his conversion.” The outward manifestations should be understood in such a way that they were necessary. They were signs for the apostle Peter and other Jews that the Lord had accepted the gentiles also in the Church. An important fact that should be kept in mind is that the Acts of the Apostles cannot be normative because it is the historical account of all that happened in the early church. The Holy Spirit came upon three separate groups of people in ways similar to Pentecost to ensure that all were included in the body of Christ (the Church) which was established on Pentecost. These passages are not written in order to encourage the seeking of second blessing.
6. BAPTISM AND FILLING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT – ARE THEY SAME?
Pentecostals and some Charismatics do not distinguish between baptism and fulness of the Spirit.Menzies writes, “Baptism describes one only one aspect of the experience of His person. It is also called a filling. Several other words like ‘poured out’, ‘came on’, ‘received’ also refer to the same experience.” Pentecostal dictionary also confirms this use of interchangeable terms for the same experience of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. Evangelicals, however, differentiate between the two. Stott brings out this difference in his book, Baptism and Fullness,” …the fulness of the Spirit was the consequence of the baptism of the Spirit. The Baptism is what Jesus did (pouring out his Spirit from heaven); the fulness is what they received. The baptism was a unique initiatory experience; the fulness was intended to be the continuing, the permanent result, the norm.”
The book of Acts records several incidents of filling (Acts 2:4, 4:8,31, 6:3, 7:55). The ‘Baptism’ of the Holy Spirit is an one time experience but ‘filling’ of the Holy Spirit should happen as often as possible. The ‘Baptism’ of the Holy Spirit unites in Christ whereas the ‘filling’ of the Spirit brings growth and power into one’s life. Grudem says that ‘filling’ will result in renewed worship and thanks giving (Eph 5:19-20), renewed relationships (Eph 5:21-6:9), increased sanctification and power in ministry. ‘Baptism’ of the Spirit is non experiential, whereas the ‘filling’ with the Spirit is experiential. ‘Baptism’ of the Holy Spirit happens at conversion but ‘filling’ of the Holy Spirit happens when we surrender ourselves to God completely.
6.1 What about Speaking in Tongues?
Pentecostals and some Charismatic have laid particular stress on speaking in ‘Tongues’ as ‘the’ initial evidence of the baptism or filling of the Holy Spirit. Scriptural evidence for this is drawn from Acts narratives (Acts 2:4, 10:45-46, 8:17, 9:17) and I Cor 14:18. Robert Menzies writes, “When one receives the Pentecostal gift, one should expect to manifest tongues, and this manifestation is a uniquely demonstrative sign.” Since we have already seen that baptism of the Holy Spirit is union with Christ and it happens at conversion, the question is not whether one speaks in tongues at Spirit -Baptism or not. Rather, the question is whether tongues is the evidence of filling of the Holy Spirit ? Evangelicals are divided in their opinion. There are cessationists who no more believe in the existence of tongues. Others, the majority believe that tongues exist as a gift and it need not be the evidence for the filling experience. Anthony A. Hoekema writes, “There is no scriptural evidence whatever that speaking with tongues is proof of one’s having received the baptism of the Holy Spirit.” The researcher’s conviction with regard to this is that tongues need not be ‘the’ evidence of one’s filling. It is a gift listed in I Corinthians and the Holy Spirit gives it to believers as He wills. Some claim that there are two types of tongues – one given as the initial evidence of the filling and another is the gift of tongues mentioned in I Corinthians. However, the researcher does not find evidence for such a dichotomy.
The Pentecostals’ usual question to believers, “Have you received Spirit-Baptism with Tongues?” is not only unscriptural but harmful as well. Such a question strongly suggests that there are two groups of Christians – Spirit Baptized and non Spirit Baptized. To expect every one to speak in tongues is going against the clear admonition of God’s word (I Cor 12:30). Evangelicals, in turn, should not outrightly reject or question the validity of every ‘post-conversion’ experiences of the Pentecostals. Evangelicals should also learn to respect the Pentecostal views and express the truth in love. They have a lot to learn from the zeal and exuberance of Pentecostals and Charismatics.
The Bible nowhere commands us to seek for the ‘baptism’ in the Holy Spirit but urges us to be ‘filled’ with the Spirit . The Spirit – Baptism is the divine act of God that unites a person into the body of Christ at the moment of conversion. It is not some thrilling experience to be sought after. Nevertheless, what the Church needs today is men and women of God who would allow the indwelling Holy Spirit to do His will. The word of God promises power in personal life and ministry through the filling of the Holy Spirit. Andrew Murray writes, “the greatest need of the Church, and the thing which, above all others, believers ought to seek for with one mind and with their whole heart, is to be filled with the Spirit of God.” Let that become the prayer of all who earnestly seek God.
The quote cited in R C. Sproul, The Mystery of the Holy Spirit (Illinois: Tyndale House, 1990), 11.
Merill F. Unger, The Baptism and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit (Chicago: Moody Press,1974), 21.
John R. W. Stott, Baptism and Fullness: The work of the Holy Spirit today (England: IVP, 1975), 23.
Unger, The Baptism and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, 10.
www.catholicapologetics.org/ the baptism of the Holy Spirit.htm.>19/10/04
Micheal Green, I Believe in the Holy Spirit (Grand Rapids: Eardmans, 1975), 128-129.
Wayne A. Grudem, Douglas A. Oss et al., Are Miraculous Gifts for Today ?: Four views (India: OM Books,1996), 11.
William W. Menzies, Bible Doctrines: A Pentecostal Perspective (Missouri: Logian Press,1996),123.
Stanley M. Burgess and Edward M. Vander Mass et al., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Michigan: Zondervan, 2002), 354.
Grudem, Oss et al., Are Miraculous Gifts for Today ?: Four views, 11.
Sproul, The Mystery of the Holy Spirit, 138.
Grudem, Oss et al., Are Miraculous Gifts for Today ?: Four views, 12.
Grudem, Oss et al., Are Miraculous Gifts for Today ?: Four views, 12.
Green, I Believe in the Holy Spirit, 128-129.
J. D Doughlas, Merrill C. Tenny et al., New International Bible Dictionary (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1987), 123.
Green, I Believe in the Holy Spirit, 129.
Douglas, Tenny et al., New International Bible Dictionary , 123.
Douglas, Tenny et al., New International Bible Dictionary ,124.
Stott, Baptism and Fullness: The work of the Holy Spirit today, 37.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (India: OM Books, 1964), 766.
Burgess and Vander Mass et al., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, 355.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 767.
Stott, Baptism and Fullness: The work of the Holy Spirit today, 42.
James D. G. Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1970), 31.
Unger, The Baptism and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, 50-51.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 771.
Burgess and Vander Mass et al., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements,356.
Menzies, Bible Doctrines: A Pentecostal Perspective, 124.
Stott, Baptism and Fullness: The work of the Holy Spirit today, 29.
Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit, 40.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 770.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 772.
Burgess and Vander Mass et al., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, 357.
Unger, The Baptism and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, 78.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 774.
William Atkinson, “Responses to Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Luke-Acts” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 6, (1995): 95.
Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit, 84.
Green, I Believe in the Holy Spirit, 135.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 775.
Atkinson, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 6, 94.
Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit, 77-78.
Atkinson, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 6, 95.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 774.
Menzies, Bible Doctrines: A Pentecostal Perspective, 125.
Burgess and Vander Mass et al., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, 355-356.
Stott, Baptism and Fullness: The work of the Holy Spirit today, 48.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 781-782.
Unger, The Baptism and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, 30.
Burgess and Vander Mass et al., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, 358-359.
Robert P.Menzies, Empowered for Witness (England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991), 255.
Grudem, Oss et al., Are Miraculous Gifts for Today ?: Four views,132.
Anthony A. Hoekema, Tongues and Spirit-Baptism (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1981), 53.
Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 777.
Andrew Murray, The Believer’s Full Blessing of Pentecost (Minnesota: Bethany Hose Publishers, 1984), 1.
By Sam K John