Mission is a word which is often misunderstood. Some regard mission as spreading political influence or as a massive welfare program for underdeveloped societies of the world. Others view mission as something related to civilizing barbaric communities. In India, mission is considered to be an imposition of Western culture. A biblical perspective of missions shows that mission has its source and origin in God. The concept of Missio Dei elucidates the reality of Christian mission. It is a Latin word meaning God’s Mission. The word Mission comes from another Latin word immitere meaning to send. New Begin states this accurately, “The mission is God’s, not ours. But God chooses men and women for the service of His mission.”
Since the beginning, God has been at work to fulfill His purpose. He created man and woman in His image, placed them in a perfect environment and enjoyed His fellowship with them but they chose to frustrate God’s good plan in disobedience. God could have destroyed mankind but instead he chose to bless by offering redemption to humanity and restore His kingdom. The Bible contains the record of this progress of redemption. The plan for the redemption gradually displayed in the scripture from Genesis to Revelation. The climax of God’s mission is found in the sending of His son Jesus Christ.
The role of the Holy Spirit in this mission of God is significant. The Scripture conclusively reveal the indispensability of the activity of the Holy Spirit in the sovereign plans of God for the world. We believe that the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost was decisive in the progress of mission. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to critically explore the impact of Pentecost on mission and its relevance to contemporary mission. The research will involve a brief study of mission in the Old Testament, the Old Testament understanding of Pentecost, the descend of the Holy Spirit and the various views related to its significance. It also includes an in-depth study of the effect of Pentecost on the disciples of Jesus Christ and in the expansion of the early Church. In conclusion we have drawn lessons for modern missions in India from the study.
MISSION IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
The Old Testament is to be taken seriously because it gives much of the background for the New Testament including its concept of mission. God’s dealings with nations began in Genesis 12 with the calling of Abraham. God’s election of Abraham was to bring into being a channel for His unique work of redemption of the whole world. Thus, Israel emerged as God’s missionary instrument. In a similar way we see throughout the Old Testament period, the act of God in raising individuals for missionary tasks. For instance, Moses played an important role in the liberation of Israelites from the slavery of Egypt. God also used several prophets like Jonah, Isaiah, Elijah, Elisha in His missionary endeavors. However, since the Israelites did not remain faithful to the Lord (1 Chr.5:26, 2 Chr.36:22) they failed to carry out the mission of God. An important feature of the Old Testament mission is its centripetal nature. Israel did not move out to witness but was kept as a witness to be observed by the surrounding nations.
With regard to the role of the Holy Spirit, He was only given to selected individuals to empower them for particular services in mission. The Holy Sprit was with persons and upon them; the Holy Spirit was not resident upon the earth but visited them from time to time. However, we see Ezekiel (36: 25-27) and Joel (Joel 2: 28) foretelling a day of fulness of the Spirit which would be the crowning gift of redeeming grace. The promise forecasted that God was going to use all people irrespective of sex, race and culture in His future mission. This pointed towards the day of Pentecost.
THE ROLE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN NEW TESTAMENT MISSION
The work of the Holy Spirit in mission is clearly evident in the New Testament. In the gospels we see the work of the Holy Spirit in the life of Jesus Christ, the central figure and essence of mission. Throughout the life of Jesus Christ, from birth to ascension we find the role of the Holy Spirit (Lk 1: 35, Jn 1: 32-33, Lk 4: 18).
The Holy Spirit was also at work among the disciples when they were with Jesus. However, towards the end of Jesus’ ministry we find Him promising the disciples about a new experience in regard to the Holy Spirit (John 14: 16 -17, 16: 7). We also find that the risen Lord breathed upon his disciples and said in John 20: 22, “Receive the Holy Ghost,” just before ascension. There has been much debate among theologians and commentators about what happened when Jesus breathed on them. Did the disciples receive the Holy Spirit at that moment ? Or was this a promise that they would receive Him at the proper time? Roger Hedlund cites Godet, “This preparatory communication will necessary make them understand, when the wind of the Spirit shall blow, that this wind is nothing less than the personal breath of their invisible master.” The reading of Acts chapter 1: 5 -8 shows that the Holy Spirit in person had not been given and it was a promise for the future.
Christ gave His great commission at least three times if not more. In the gospel of John, He tied it in immediately with the power which he would give them through the Holy Spirit. Jesus therefore asked them to wait in Jerusalem to receive the Holy Spirit before they take up the commission. Thus, the promise of the Holy Spirit was present in the commission. In both the Testaments, there is a consciousness of limitation and incompleteness before the Pentecost.
PENTECOST : A JEWISH FEAST
The word derives from the Greek for “the fiftieth day.” In its scriptural setting Pentecost is one of the great Jewish national festival, which institution is recorded in Deut.16:9-12. In the Old Testament, it is called the Feast of Weeks or the day of first fruits (Num 28: 26) which fell on the fiftieth day after the feast of the Passover. Like all Jewish feasts, Jewish Pentecost had two significances. It had an agricultural significance. It marked the beginning of wheat harvest, and one of its great dramatic ceremonies was the offering of two loaves made from the flour of the new wheat (Lev. 23: 16 -17). It also had an historical significance. Pentecost commemorated the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. In the modern days, Pentecost is celebrated two days in the Diaspora (except for Reform Jews who celebrate only one day), and for one day in Israel.
PENTECOST: THE COMING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
The New Testament records that the fulfillment of the divine promise of the Holy Spirit, in the full manifestation of his power, occurred on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2). The coming of the spirit at the Pentecost was as epochal as the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. It was God moving in a new Revelation of Himself – at the beginning of the new Age – our Age! It was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophesies( Joel 2: 28 -32) and Jesus’ promise of the Holy Spirit.
Frank Bateman Stanger states four probable reasons as to why God choose the day of Pentecost in fulfilling the promise of the coming of the Holy Spirit in his fullness (Joel 2:28-32): First, it was a national religious festival. Jews had gathered in Jerusalem from all over the world. Why should not the fulfillment of the Great commission begin auspiciously?. Second, Pentecost was also a day of thanksgiving for a successful harvest. This could be spiritually symbolic of the “harvest of redemption,” completed by Jesus Christ. Third, the day of Pentecost meant dedication to the Lord. This is an appropriate analogy for the spiritual dedication witnessed in the tarrying of the disciples. Fourth, Pentecost was a time of joy, radiance and festivity. The coming of the Holy Spirit always meant gladness and radiance to the church of Christ. Although the above points are valuable insights, we may not know exactly as to why God chose that particular day for the third person of Trinity to descend from heaven. One fact is certain: God did sent the Holy Spirit as He had promised.
THE PENTECOST : THE EVENT AS NARRATED IN ACTS CHAPTER TWO
The disciples of Jesus, as directed by Him, waited in Jerusalem for the receiving of the Power from the above. As described in Acts chapter two, the Spirit descended upon all the120 believers, not just to the twelve. He was given to women as well as men. He was not given to a particular sex or class or office, but to a person as a person.
The day of the Pentecost was characterized by certain physical phenomenon which accompanied the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. There was a sound as of a rushing, mighty wind which filled all the house where the disciples were sitting (Acts:2:2). A tongue of fire was distributed to each of those waiting in the upper room (Acts 2:3). After this, the Spirit-filled disciples were able to witness to others in their own languages, which in turn was unfamiliar to them (Acts 2: 4 -12).
VIEWS ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SUPERNATURAL PHENOMENA
E. Stanley Jones finds a spiritual significance in each phenomenon. The sound as of a rushing mighty wind filling all the house signified the coming of the Holy Spirit as a corporate experience. The tongue of fire distributed to each one indicated that each individual person would receive the fulness of the spirit. It was to be a personal as well as a corporate experience.
Dupont finds a parallel between Pentecost and Sinai. The signs in both occasions included a loud noise, flames as a fire ( Acts 2:3; Exo. 19:18), and speaking in other tongues ( Acts 2:4; Exo. 19:19). The descent of the Spirit of God is compared to the descent of Yahweh.
BOER’S INTERPRETATIONS OF THE MEANING OF PENTECOST
Boer was a well known missionary theologian of his times. His work entitled “Pentecost and Mission” is a classic. Boer gives four prominent interpretations on the meaning of Pentecost in relation to mission. The first view proposes that into whatever city or region an apostle entered he found himself instantly without any previous study, the ability to address the native inhabitants in their own vernacular dialect. Therefore, Pentecost has been providing the church with temporary linguistic endowment for mission. This view is not acceptable. Hedlund argues, the Bible gives no instance of temporary ability to preach in a local language. Although there is a supernatural element in the Tongues spoken during the event, this cannot be always applied universally and eschatologically. Missionaries in the past and now learn languages by systematic training most of the times.
The second view, that Pentecost acts as a universal symbol of the gospel, almost denies the historicity of the signs by reducing them to be merely symbolic occurrences. The third view is not concerned with the phenomena of Pentecost but with the promise of Acts 1: 8, of spiritual empowerment of missionary witness. The last view considers the Pentecost as an eschatological event. This view considers Pentecost as the fulfillment of Joel’s prophesy ( Joel 2: 28 -32).
The researchers agree with the interpretations that the event of Pentecost is to be understood in the light of mission. However, it is not just a symbolic event, a historical one too. Jesus Christ himself related the event of Pentecost to mission and empowerment (Acts 1: 8). The coming of the Holy Spirit enabled the disciples of Jesus to obtain power to carry out the mission. Boer, therefore, rightly notes that the great commission derives its meaning and power wholly and exclusively from the Pentecost. Further, the event of Pentecost should be viewed as the beginning of the church. Frank Bateman writes, “Even though the church was instituted by Jesus Christ at Caesarea Philippi (Matt 16: 13 -19), it was constituted on Pentecost ( Acts 2) and the Spirit was given to consolidate and undergrid such ecclesiastical constitution.” Kraemar says, the descent of the spirit made the disciples apostles, i.e. Missionaries;
PENTECOST: A HISTORICAL EVENT
The event of Pentecost is a historical incident and it will not be repeated. Boer states that there is only one Pentecost. However, the references in Acts chapters 8, 10 and 19 shows as if the event of Pentecost continued in the early church. The incidents in the above stated chapters are to be understood in the light of Acts 1: 8. The signs similar to the event of Pentecost happened only when the church crossed distinct cultural barriers, i.e., to include Samaritans, gentiles and John’s disciples as part of the church started on the day of Pentecost. A thorough scriptural study shows that the Holy Spirit ‘s coming upon the church was in direct fulfillment of the promise of Christ. Therefore, it is historical and not a continuing church pattern, The Holy Spirit who descended upon humanity on the day of Pentecost continues to work in the life of individuals and enables the church in mission.
THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF THE PENTECOST ON THE DISCIPLES
Pentecost transformed the disciples into a courageous community. We see Peter with utter fearlessness addressing the crowd and boldly proclaiming the message of the cross immediately after the event. We should keep in mind that these were the people who forsook Jesus and fled a few days back. Peter even denied any knowledge of Jesus. After Jesus’ crucifixion the disciples are seen trembling at every step. But these people gained a new boldness after the event ( Matt 26:56, Mark 14: 50, John 21:3, John 18:15).
Pentecost gave the disciples a new understanding of the message. The first Christian sermon preached by Peter, highlights the new understanding of the gospel message and a better presentation of the same. Peter neither guessed nor groped for words. He used highly intelligible words in his logically presented sermon (Acts 2:16-38). It should be noted that Peter during his sermon based every statement on Jewish scripture. The Holy Spirit enabled the disciples to see in scripture the meanings, significance, pointers, that they had never seen before. The message of the gospel its road straight to the heart of man and woman of every origin and every background.
Pentecost brought about a divine unity and fellowship. The most striking purpose of the Spirit’s advent is reflected in the unity witnessed among the early church believers. Calvin claimed this to be the central purpose of the Pentecost event. We see in the gospel accounts that there existed among the disciples a sense of disunity and lack of mutual trust (Matt 20;24). We also find the disciples not standing as a unit during the time of Jesus’ crucifixion. After Pentecost they discovered a fellowship with one another and with Christ. What we read in Acts chapter two about the Christian community is a powerful illustration of the unity. Members were expected to give themselves wholly to the community. They met constantly to hear the apostles teach, and to share the common life, to break bread and to pray.
Pentecost brought about a revival in conversion. The most significant demonstration of the empowerment of the disciples was evident in their evangelistic efforts. On the very first evangelistic effort, we see large scale conversions happening through the minority people of God. Three thousand repented and believed in Christ. The last verse of Acts chapter two sums up this new explosion in conversion, “And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved.”
Pentecost charted out a new dimension in the ministry of Disciples. Soon after the event we find the disciples involved in healing people and driving off demons without any difficulty. The power of healing was obvious that people brought the sick to the disciples (Acts 4, 5: 12 -16). We also find them doing miracles and signs of wonder through the working power of the Holy Spirit. However, this dimension was missing among the disciples before this event. In Math 17 : 14 -20 we find that the disciples could not heal the sick and drive out demons.
Pentecost brought forth among the disciples a willingness to suffer for Christ. The major deficiency among the disciples before the event of Pentecost was that they were not willing to face persecution. Whenever Christ mentioned about the cross they either rebuked Him or evaded from the topic. We also see them running away at the moment of Jesus’ arrest. However, after Pentecost a great change happened at the attitude level of these disciples. They were willing to face persecution. We read in Acts chapter 5: 17- 29, that they were willing to be put in prison for their faith. We also find Stephen, one of the deacons of the early church suffering martyrs death.
HOLY SPIRIT IN THE EXPANSION OF THE EARLY CHURCH
The role of the Holy Spirit was already becoming very evident in the early church. Filled with the Spirit, Peter addressed the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:8 ). Men who were filled with the Holy Spirit were appointed as deacons. Stephen the first martyr was filled with the Holy Spirit and faced death in a glorious way. Several Jews were getting converted in and around Jerusalem and Judea. But, for the church to settle down in Jerusalem was not its divine mission. So, after four years from Pentecost, a great persecution broke out scattering the believers except the Apostles. This has been sometimes recognized as disciplinary and corrective. One view says that this four years were necessary for the infant church to spread her wings. However, while considering the urgency of mission, four years were too long to spend in one great city. The Guidance of the Holy Spirit in the expansion of the church is remarkable. Following the persecution after Stephen’s martyrdom, the young Jerusalem church is scattered. But, the Holy Spirit worked through the scattered people.
GOSPEL TO SAMARIA AND EHTIOPIA
Philip also took the gospel to the Samaritans who were considered inferior to the Jews because of their polluted Jewish ancestry. He brought a great revival in Samaria. This news reaches the Apostles in Jerusalem and they send Peter and John to investigate and get first hand information. The Holy Spirit came upon the Samaritans as in the event of Pentecost with signs. This happened as an evidence for the Apostles that the Lord had accepted Samaritans too into the church.
Further, the Holy Spirit prompts Philip to approach the Ethiopian (15:28-29). This eunuch from Ethiopia had been in Jerusalem to worship. The Holy Spirit made use of this opportunity to use Philip to pass on the gospel through this man to an entire nation of Ethiopia. Thus, Eusebius one of the great early church fathers, writes: ‘Tradition says that he was the first to return to his native land and preach the gospel of the knowledge of God of the universe…”
CONVERSION OF SAUL
The conversion of Paul is a important happening in the early Church. We see him as a strong persecutor of the early church in Acts chapter 8. The Holy Spirit initiated his conversion in a spectacular way. Howard writes, “Ananias had his doubts about doing this, knowing that Saul was a great persecutor of the church. Yet, he obeyed under the prompting of the Spirit.”
GOSPEL TO THE GENTILES
The next major leading of the Holy Spirit was in leading the early church to the gentiles. In Acts 10, we see how the Holy Spirit led Peter to the household of Cornelius, the gentile. So, while Peter preached just to one man and his household, he was actually reaching out to an entire ethnic group. Roger Hedlund notes that the repetition of the signs similar to Pentecost at the conversion of Cornelius is cited as proof of the divine authenticity of gentile evangelization. The ambivalence that Peter showed in doing so is probably an accurate reflection of how difficult it was for the Jewish believers in the early church to accept non Jews or gentiles on a equal basis. New testament scholars maintain that the great issue with which the early church struggled was the gentile mission. It is worthy of note that in all the above three cases, i.e. Samaritan conversions, Paul’s conversion and gentile conversions, the men involved would have preferred not to go where the Spirit told them to go. But the Spirit of God prodded these men into an out reach which resulted in a great spread of the gospel.
ANTIOCH: THE FIRST MISSIONARY CHURCH
Acts chapter 11: 19 -20 explains how the gospel reached Antioch. Some of the men who got scattered after the persecution, men from Cyprus and Cyrene went to Antioch and preached the gospel. The city was a cosmopolitan center at the crossroads of ancient trade routes. This became the first opportunity for the church to become cross cultural and multiethnic. The church grew in Christ because of the presence of Paul and Barnabas.
After a year or two, the Spirit set apart Barnabas and Paul for taking the gospel to the new frontiers. This ‘work’ was the first conscious and deliberate effort to fulfill the command of the risen Lord to go and make disciples of all nations. Since then, Antioch served as a base for missionary endeavors. Paul undertook three missionary journeys along with companions from Antioch. We also witness the Spirit who guides and directs the decisions of the council of Jerusalem, where crucial decisions of the church was taken (15:28-29). The early church in the days of Acts had a tremendous consciousness of led by the Holy Spirit.
SPIRITUAL GIFTS: AN ENDOWMENT FOR THE ENTIRE CHURCH AGE
The Holy Spirit gives gifts to the children of God to build up the Church. The Bible records four lists of spiritual gifts provided by the Holy Spirit. The following passages enlist them: Ephesians 4:11, Romans 12: 6-8, I Corinthians 12: 7 -10, I Corinthians 12:28. Every gift is important and essential for building up of the Christian community. God does not set up spiritual hierarchy whereby some gifts are more important in His eyes than others. Every believer has been given one or more gifts. The word of God shows that spiritual gifts are not for private enjoyment or personal glory but it for the furtherance of the church. The Holy spirit distributes the gifts according to his sovereign will (I Cor.12:11). Therefore we may assume that God gives all the gifts that are needed for the function and edification of the congregation.
THE REVIVAL OF MISSIONS IN THE RECENT CENTURIES
The dark ages of Christianity lasted from the third century to the dawn of Reformation. Protestants sparked a revival in mission and evangelism and the seventeenth century saw a great awakening in the use of Scripture. The mission of God was revived as never before in the last two centuries. Since then there has been a tremendous awareness and participation in missions. The irrefutable reason for this breakthrough is attributed to the work of the Holy Spirit. Stanger comments that, “ The epoch – making spiritual renewals and revivals of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were direct fruit of the recovery of a true understanding of the Holy Spirit. This is an exciting phenomena of the contemporary mission era.”
In the recent centuries the Church has witnessed great evangelistic explosions carried out by Spirit filled men like D. L. Moody, C. H. Surgeon, Billy Graham, Reinhard Bonke and many others. There also has been a revival in the ministry of healing, prophesy and miracles which has won millions to Christ. There is an ever increasing number of cross cultural mission awareness and missionary attempts.
In 2000 AD, God’s people were guided by the Holy Spirit to use new ministry tools for His mission. For instance, Christian Radio and TV have become major means of evangelism in the world today. In 1980, there were 1,450 broadcasting stations and, 960 million regular listeners. In India, many missionary agencies like FMPB, IEM, IMS, BYM, UESI have come up and they are reaching every nook and corner of the nation. For instance, there has been a tremendous conversion among tribals like Malto in Bihar, Kokana in Gujarat, Varli in Maharastra.
THE NEED OF THE INDIAN CHURCH – DEPENDENCE ON THE HOLY SPIRIT
The need of the hour in the Indian church and missions today is the rediscovery of the importance of the Holy Spirit. Pastor Sam Sundaram, the founder of Apostolic Christian Assembly, chennai, says that, “Even as breathing is essential for the body for survival, so also the Holy Spirit for Evangelism.” The Indian church needs the power of the Holy Spirit because of the following reasons.
The Motivation to grow and explode – The Christian community has not grown much inspite of many Christian mission agencies and early arrival of the gospel in the land. Although sufficient funds and human power are available for mission purpose, the growth is not in proportion to the resources. We need a special intervention from the Lord through the Holy Spirit to have a breakthrough as in the days of Acts. We need a revival similar to what happened in Britain during the time of Wesley. We should seek the presence of the Holy Spirit to stir our cold hearts.
The Power to witness in a pagan culture – We live in a nation dominated by Hindus, Muslims, and others religious groups. The Christian community is a minority. The power to witness should come from the Holy Spirit. It was through the Holy Spirit that the gospel was first preached and it is through the Holy Spirit that the gospel must continue to be preached ( I Pet 1; 12).  The Holy Spirit alone can give proper guidance in our strategies and plans to reach this culturally diversified nation.
The Strength to stand as a unified body – There has been a lot of divisions among the churches, and it has resulted in a great shame for the church among non Christians. It has spoiled the witness of the Indian church. There also lacks co operation in evangelizing and missionary endeavors. Division is the characteristic of world; unity is the characteristic of Christianity. Only the Spirit can bring unity among the children of God. What is needed is the fruit of the Spirit. Unfortunately, there is an undue longing for the gifts of the Spirit rather than the needed fruit.
Men and women filled with the Holy Spirit – We see from the above study that the people who were used by God were men filled with the Holy Spirit. It empowered them to preach courageously, live a Godly life and suffer for Christ. The greatest need of the Indian church is role models, who will obey the voice of the Holy Spirit. According to the scripture the filling of the Holy Spirit happens when the people of God humble themselves and surrender their will to God. It may or may not be accompanied with supernatural events but always results in powerful witness.
The Strength to withstand persecution – We live in a century marked by violence against Christian missionaries by Anti Christian elements. We hear about stories of threat, murder and harassment of Christians from all over the nation. Anti conversion Laws are introduced in several states. Forced re conversions are reported and difficult days are ahead of the church. To stand against these odds, the Indian church needs the power of the Holy Spirit.
The above study clearly establishes the fact that the role of the Holy Spirit in mission is indispensable. Since mission has its origin in God it can only be done with divine help. Pentecost was a vital event in the history of mission as the Holy Spirit descended from above to dwell among his children. The Holy Spirit constituted the Church, and He remains with the Church to carry out the mission. He guides (John 16: 13), empowers, produces fruits (Gal 5: 22), and equips the Church with Spiritual gifts ( Rom 12: 6-8). His work will continue till the coming of Jesus Christ for His Church. Unfortunately many Christians regard the Holy Spirit as a new discovery of the charismatic and Pentecostals. However, we need to understand that the Holy Spirit is not an exclusive possession of particular denominations. It is God’s gift for the universal Church ( Acts 2: 38). Stanger rightly points out that the Holy Spirit is not a luxury but a certain necessity. It is our prayer that the church in India will rely on the Spirit and explode in mission and evangelism.
Terry C. Hulbert, World Missions Today (Illinois: ETTA, 1979), 11.
Roger E Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World (Michigan: Baker House, 1991), 73.
Frank Bateman Stanger, The Church empowered (Michigan: Francis Asbury Press, 1989), 13.
Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World, 19.
Hedlund, God and the Nations (Delhi: ISPCK, 1997), 26.
Hedlund , The Mission of the Church in the World, 39.
Samuel Chadwick, The Way to Pentecost and the path of Prayer (London: Hodder & Stoughton Limited, 1989), 23.
David M. Howard, By the Power of the Holy Spirit (Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1973), 60
Hedlund , The Mission of the Church in the World, 192.
Chadwick, The Way to Pentecost and the path of Prayer, 24.
J. D Doughlas, Merrill C. Tenny et al., New International Bible Dictionary (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1987), 764.
Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein, How Firm a Foundation (Massachusetts: Paraclete Press, 1997), 91.
Alexander Fraser, The Guidance of the Apostolic Church by the Holy Spirit (Penna: Evangelical Fellowship, 1942), 21.
Stranger, The Church Empowered, 29-30.
Stranger, The Church Empowered, 32.
J. Dupont, The Salvation of the Gentiles (New York: Paulist, 1979), 40. cited in Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World, 193.
Harry R. Boer, Pentecost and Missions (Michigan: Eerdmans, 1961), 49.
Ibid., 52- 53.
Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World, 194.
Stanger, The Church Empowered, 93.
n.a, The Spirit and the mission (Wellington: Bryce Francis limited, n.d ), 17
Boer, Pentecost and Missions, 92.
Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World, 197.
William Barclay, The Promise of the Spirit (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), 52.
John Mark Terry, Ebbie Smith & Justise Anderson (eds), Missiology (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 77
Barclay, The Promise of the Spirit, 53.
Lycurgus M. Starkey Jr, The Holy Spirit at Work in the Church (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1965), 23.
Fraser, The Guidance of the Apostolic Church by the Holy Spirit, 37.
Fraser, The Guidance of the Apostolic Church by the Holy Spirit, 44.
Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World, 197.
John Mark Terry, Ebbie Smith & Justise Anderson (eds), Missiology, 78.
Howard, By the Power of the Holy Spirit, 74.
John Mark Terry, Ebbie Smith & Justise Anderson (eds), Missiology, 80.
Howard, By the Power of the Holy Spirit, 102.
Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World, 249.
Stanger, The Church Empowered, 25.
Graham Cheesma. Mission Today, 63.
Sam Sundaram, Work of the Holy Spirit in Evangelism, Mission mandate (Madras: Mission India 2000, 1992), 51
Barclay, The Promise of the Spirit, 105.
Stanger, The Church Empowered, 28..
By Sam K John